Thursday, September 23, 2010
Wednesday, June 30, 2010
I hope to cover this article with the following. Don’t know I have succeed in this.
What are solar panels?
How do solar panels work?
How to make panels?
Solar Panels use arrays of solar photovoltaic cells to convert incoming photons from sun into usable electricity. With solar panels we are using echo friendly renewable energy from the sun.
Solar panels are typically constructed with crystalline silicon, and the more expensive gallium arsenide, which is produced exclusively for use in photovoltaic (solar) cells.
Other, more efficient solar panels are assembled by depositing amorphous silicon alloy in a continuous roll-to-roll process. The solar cells created from this process are called Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, or A-si. Solar Panels constructed using amorphous silicon technology is more durable, efficient, and thinner than their crystalline counterparts.
For very important solar projects, such as space probes, very-high efficiency solar cells are constructed from gallium arsenide by a process called molecular beam epitaxy. Solar cells constructed by this process have several p-n junction diodes, each designed to be maximally efficient at absorbing a given part of the solar spectrum. These solar panels are much more efficient than conventional types, but the process and materials involved make them far too expensive for everyday applications.
Solar panels collect solar radiation from the sun and actively convert that energy to electricity. Solar panels are comprised of several individual solar cells. These solar cells function similarly to large semiconductors and utilize a large-area p-n junction diode. When the solar cells are exposed to sunlight, the p-n junction diodes convert the energy from sunlight into usable electrical energy. The energy generated from photons striking the surface of the solar panel allows electrons to be knocked out of their orbits and released, and electric fields in the solar cells pull these free electrons in a directional current, from which metal contacts in the solar cell can generate electricity. The more solar cells in a solar panel and the higher the quality of the solar cells, the more total electrical output the solar panel can produce. The conversion of sunlight to usable electrical energy has been dubbed the Photovoltaic Effect. The photovoltaic effect arises from the properties of the p-n junction diode; as such there are no moving parts in a solar panel.
Monday, May 31, 2010
History of Lead Acid Battery
Batteries use a chemical reaction to do work on charge and produce a voltage between their output terminals.
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Tuesday, March 30, 2010
Figure 1 shows the circuit diagram of the in-system programmer interface, the power to the interface is provided by the target system. The 74HCT541 ic isolate and buffer the parallel port signals. It is necessary to use the HCT type ic in order to make sure the programmer should also work with 3V type parallel port.
More information (PCB, descriptions, Programmer software can be found at the following Link)
Link to main site
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Monday, January 11, 2010
Here’s a single chip FM transmitter circuit using Maxim semiconductors IC MAX2606. The MAX2606 is a compact, high-performance intermediate frequency VCO specially designed for wireless communication circuits. They have monolithic construction with low-noise and a low-power operation in a compact 6-pin SOT23 packing .Th1s low-noise IC feature an on-chip varicap diode and feedback capacitances that avoid the need for external tuning components, making the MAX2606 perfect for portable systems. Only an external inductor is needed to set the oscillation frequency.In addition to this, an
integrated differential output buffer is also there for driving a mixer or prescaler.The MAX2606 can be operated from a single +2.8 V to +5.4V supply and consumes very less current .The chip can be operated from 45MHz to 650MHz .
In the circuit the nominal frequency is set to 100 Mhz by inductor L1, (390nH) . The left and right channel audio signals from your source are added by R3 and R4, and attenuated by the POT R2. R2 can be used as a volume control .POT R1 can be used to select a channel of transmission between 88Mhz and 108Mhz.Use 80 cm long wire as the antenna .