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Thursday, July 30, 2009

Analog Audio Delay Line(3d Sound)

It is fun to make a variable space in your small room, but it’s hard to make the actuator to move your wall or room partition. Using analog audio line delay, you can adjust your room virtually. Just turn a knob in your audio set and you can adjust your room size. The circuit described here will make your dream come true, giving a feel that your speaker is located 15 meters behind you, even though your room is actually 3 meters wide. Here is the circuit’s schematic diagram.The core of this circuit is SAD512D integrated circuit, an analog audio delay. The chip uses 512 capacitors memory to hold 512 sampled analog signal. The delay can be adjusted from about 5,1 ms to 51 ms by R12 pot. Feed the input of this analog delay circuit with a mixed right and left audio signals from your stereo system. The output of this circuit then fed to a small power amplifier and place the output speaker behind you. Now you can perceive like your speaker is 15 m away behind (with maximum delay setting). If you build two unit the cascading the circuit will result in 30 meter expansion of your virtual room.

The circuit consist three main block. The first block (U1A, U1B) is a fourth order low pass filter (-24dB roll-off per octave) with 2.5kHz cut off frequency. The second block is the adjustable analog delay integrated circuit (IC SAD512D). The delay is controlled by the oscillator around U2 which is adjustable from 5KHz to 50Khz. The last block is similar to the first block, a low-pass filter with 2.5KHz cut off frequency.

A variable resistor R9 is provided to adjust the input offset, avoiding signal clipping and maximizing the audio range. For easy adjustment, feed the input with high level audio signal until the output is distorted, then adjust R9 until the distortion is minimum, or if an oscilloscope is available, adjust the R9 until the clipping is equal for both positive and negative cycle. Finally, adjust R28 to give minimum sampling clock noise.


Reference Part
C1,C4,C10,C12 10n
C11,C2 1n5
C3 4.7uF/50V
C13,C5 1n9
C6 390p
C8,C7 1u/25V
C9 1uF/25V
C14,C15,C16 100n
J1 input connector
J2 out connector
R1,R2,R3,R5,R6,R7,R11,R20,R21,R22,R24,R25,R26 10k
R4,R23,R27 4k7
R8,R15 15k
R9 2k2 POT
R10 2k7
R12 220k POT
R13 10R
R18,R14 1k
R17,R16 330R
R19 100k
R28 250R trimpot
U1 TL084
U2 4011

Thursday, July 2, 2009

Temperature Monitor

Using a thermistor in the position shown makes a heat activated sensor. A change in temperature will alter the output of the op amp and energize the relay and light the LED. Swapping the position of the thermistor and 47k resistor makes a cold or frost alarm.

Sound Operated Switch

This sensitive sound operated switch can be used with a dynamic microphone insert as above, or be used with an electric (ECM) microphone. If an ECM is used then R1 (shown dotted) will need to be included. A suitable value would be between 2.2k and 10kohms. The two BC109C transistors form an audio preamp, the gain of which is controlled by the 10k preset. The output is further amplified by a BC182B transistor. To prevent instability the preamp is decoupled with a 100u capacitor and 1k resistor. The audio voltage at the collector of the BC182B is rectified by the two 1N4148 diodes and 4.7u capacitor. This dc voltage will directly drive the BC212B transistor and operate the relay and LED. It should be noted that this circuit does not "latch". The relay and LED operate momentarily in response to audio peaks.

5 to 30 Minute Timer

A switched timer for intervals of 5 to 30 minutes incremented in 5 minute steps. Simple to build, simple to make, nothing too complicated here. However you must use the CMOS type 555 timer designated the 7555, a normal 555 timer will not work here due to the resistor values. Also a low leakage type capacitor must be used for C1, and I would strongly suggest a Tantalum Bead type. Switch 3 adds an extra resistor in series to the timing chain with each rotation, the timing period is defined as :

Timing = 1.1 C1 x R1

Note that R1 has a value of 8.2M with S3 at position "a" and 49.2M at position "f". This equates to just short of 300 seconds for each position of S3. C1 and R1 through R6 may be changed for different timing periods. The output current from Pin 3 of the timer, is amplified by Q1 and used to drive a relay.

Parts List:
Relay 9 volt coil with c/o contact (1)
S1: On/Off (1)
S2: Start (1)
S3: Range (1)
IC1: 7555 (1)
B1: 9V (1)
C1: 33uF CAP (1)
Q1: BC109C NPN (1)
D1: 1N4004 DIODE (1)
C2: 100n CAP (1)
R6,R5,R4,R3,R2,R1: 8.2M RESISTOR (6)
R8: 100k RESISTOR (1)
R7: 4.7k RESISTOR (1)

6 Input Mixer

The mixer circuit below has 3 line inputs and 3 mic inputs. The mic inputs are suitable for low impedance 200-1000R dynamic microphones. An ECM or condenser mic can also be used, but must have bias applied via a series resistor. As with any mixer circuit, a slight loss is always introduced. The final summing amplifier has a gain of 2 or 6dB to overcome this. The Input line level should be around 200mV RMS. The mic inputs are amplified about 100 times or by 40dB, the total gain with the mixer is 46dB. The mic input is designed for microphones with outputs of about 2mV RMS at 1 meter. Most microphones meet this standard. The choice of op-amp is not critical in this circuit. Bipolar, FET input or MOS type op-amps can therefore be used; i.e 741, LF351, TL061, TL071, CA3140 etc.